On What Principle Are The Following Methods Of Separation Based

On what principle are the following methods of separation based? Give one example of a mixture for … of the methods mentioned in which…

  1. Sublimation : Change of solid into vapours directly on heating and change of vapours into solid again on
    Example : Salt from ammonium chloride.
  2. Filtration : The process of separating insoluble solid particles from a liquid by allowing it to pass through a filter is called Alteration. These filters allow liquids to pass through them but not solids. The insoluble solid left on the filter is called the residue, while the liquid which passes through the filter is called the filtrate. Mixtures like chalk and water, clay and water, tea and tea leaves, sawdust and water, etc., are separated by this method.
  3. Sedimentation and decantation : The settling down of suspended, insoluble, heavy, solid particles in a solid- liquid mixture when left undistrubed is called sedimentation.
    The solid which settles at the bottom is called sediment while the clear liquid above it is called supernatant liquid.
    The process of pouring out the clear liquid, without disturbing the sediment, is called decantation.
    Example : A mixture of sand and water.
  4. Solvent extraction method : This method is used when one of the solid components is soluble in a liquid.
    Example : A mixture of sand and salt can be separated by this method. Salt gets dissolved in water while sand settles down in the container. The salt solution is then decanted. Salt is separated from the solution by evaporation. In this way, they can be separated.
  5. Magnetic separation : This method is used when one of the components of the mixture is iron. Iron gets attracted towards a magnet and hence can be separated. Mixtures of iron and sulphur, iron and sand, etc., can be separated by moving a magnet over them. Iron gets attached to the magnet and is separated.
  6. By using a separating funnel : It is a simple device used to separate the components of a liquid-liquid heterogeneous mixture.
    Example : Kerosene oil and water. The mixture is placed in a separating funnel and allowed to stand for sometime. The components form two clear layers. Water being heavier forms the lower layer and oil being lighter forms the upper layer. When the stopper of the funnel is opened, the heavier liquid trickles out slowly and is collected in a vessel. The stopper is closed when the bottom layer is entirely removed the funnel. In this way, the two liquids are separated.
  7. Fractional distillation : The process of distillation is used for separating the components of a homogeneous liquid-liquid mixture, like water and alcohol. This is based on the fact that alcohol boils at a lower temperature than water. The vapour of alcohol are collected and cooled while water is left behind in the original vessel. Thus, two liquids having different boiling points can be separated by distillation provided that difference in their boiling points must be 25 °C or more.