Define Catalytic Hydrogenation

Define: (a) catalytic hydrogenation (b) oxidation (c) reduction (d) redox reaction

Answers:

(a) Catalytic hydrogenation: catalytic hydrogenation is a process by which hydrogen gas is passed through vegetable oils in the presence of catalyst like Ni, Pt or Pd to convert them into solid vanaspati ghee.

(b) Oxidation: A reaction in which a substance combine with oxygen or in which hydrogen is removed is called oxidation reaction.
Example: H2S + Cl → 2HCl + S

(c) Reduction: Those reactions in which hydrogen combines with a substance or oxygen is removed from a substance, are known as reduction reactions.

(d) Redox reaction: Redox reactions are those in which reduction and oxidation both takes place simultaneously i.e. one substance is reduced while the other gets oxidised.