An area or region may have ample water resources but still face water scarcity. Explain why such circumstances arise.
(i) Water scarcity in most of the cities are an outcome of dense and growing population. The multiplying urban centres and urban lifestyles of the huge population have not only added to water and power requirements but have also aggravated the problem by over-exploiting available groundwater resources.
(ii) A large and growing population results in greater demands of water and consequently unequal access to it, especially in rural areas.
(iii) More water is required for domestic use by the multiplying population. Over and above,available water resources are over- exploited for expanding irrigation and dry season farming to facilitate higher foodgrain production. Over-irrigation may lead to falling groundwater levels, adversely affecting water availability and food security of the people.
(iv) Ever-increasing number of industries with their heavy consumption of water and hydroelectricity have placed undue pressure on the existing freshwater resources.
(v) Another situation of water scarcity arises when the available water resources are rendered unusable due to pollution by discharge of effluents from industries, use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers in agriculture and due to dumping of domestic wastes.