1Answer The Following Questions Based On The

Question

1.Answer the following questions based on the assigned article "Human Hybrids" by Michael Hammer. a. Initial analyses of mitochondrial DNA did not find any evidence of interbreeding between Ne…

1.Answer the following questions based on the assigned article
"Human Hybrids" by Michael Hammer.

a. Initial analyses of mitochondrial DNA did not find any
evidence of interbreeding between Neandertals and modern humans. We
now know, however, that they did interbreed. Why might these early
mtDNA studies have found this confusing result?

b.According to the article by Hammer, contemporary genetic
analyses, showing that Neandertals and Archaic humans made at least
some contribution to the modern human gene pool, favor a
Hybridization model of human evolution. How is the Hybridization
model different from the Replacement model and the Assimilation
model?

c.In what way might Neandertal DNA contributions have been
evolutionarily advantageous for modern humans?

Solutions

Expert Solution

01: There are to date only a dozen or so mtDNA sequences that
have been sampled. Because the current sample of Neanderthal mtDNA
is so small, it is possible that researchers simply have not yet
found the mtDNA in Neanderthals that corresponds to that of modern
humans. And also, the Neanderthal mtDNA sequences were not
particularly genetically diverse.

02: The Replacement model asserts that there
was a single origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and that these
anatomically modern humansmigrated out from Africa
and replaced all other less evolved
humans
throughout Europe and Asia – hence the name,
Replacement model

The Assimilation Model (AM) was developed to
explain the presence of evidence for small, but not insignificant,
anatomical contributions of Eurasian archaic humans (including
Neandertals) to modern Eurasians within a framework of the
documented African origin of the majority of modern Eurasian
ancestry.

Both above models of evolution are with little or no
hybridization, while hybridization model proposes some
interbreeding with archaic indigenous populations but with
relatively minor effects

03: The complete mtDNA sequence allowed researchers to compare
this Neanderthal mtDNA to modern human mtDNA to see if any modern
humans carried the mtDNA from a related group to the Neanderthal
group. Further, analysis also showed that this Neanderthal DNA was
closely related to both modern humans, there was only a very small
margin by which Neanderthal DNA differed exclusively from modern
humans.


Submit Your Answer

[contact-form-7 id=”5″ html_class=”cf7_custom_style_1″ title=”Answer Question”]